Table of Contents  
CASE REPORT
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 66-68  

Isolated pancreatic hydatid cyst: Preoperative prediction on contrast-enhanced computed tomography case report and review of literature


Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Seth G S Medical College and K E M Hospital, Mumbai, India

Date of Web Publication20-Jun-2012

Correspondence Address:
Avinash Supe
Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Seth G S Medical College and K E M Hospital, Mumbai - 400 012
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0975-2870.97519

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  Abstract 

A primary pancreatic-isolated hydatid cyst, that too in tail of pancreas with no lesion in liver, is a rare presentation of this disease. We report a case of 30-year-old lady presenting with only abdominal pain and on imaging found to be a cystic lesion in tail of pancreas without any liver lesion. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan is helpful in diagnosis by identifying the presence of multiloculation, curvilinear calcification, or the presence of daughter cysts. She was successfully treated by distal pancreatectomy without splenectomy.

Keywords: Pre operative prediction, CT scan, pancreatic hydatid cyst


How to cite this article:
Rayate A, Prabhu R, Kantharia C, Supe A. Isolated pancreatic hydatid cyst: Preoperative prediction on contrast-enhanced computed tomography case report and review of literature. Med J DY Patil Univ 2012;5:66-8

How to cite this URL:
Rayate A, Prabhu R, Kantharia C, Supe A. Isolated pancreatic hydatid cyst: Preoperative prediction on contrast-enhanced computed tomography case report and review of literature. Med J DY Patil Univ [serial online] 2012 [cited 2019 Jul 17];5:66-8. Available from: http://www.mjdrdypu.org/text.asp?2012/5/1/66/97519


  Introduction Top


Hydatid disease, although rare, has considerable prevalence in endemic areas dealing with stock-breeding. Although for Echinococcus granulosus, the most common target is liver and lungs, primary hydatid disease can be detected anywhere in body including spleen thyroid, breast, brain, kidney, free abdominal area as well as retroperitonium. [1],[2],[3] Pancreatic involvement of hydatid disease is very rare with an incidence of <1% as compared to other sites of hydatid disease. [1]


  Case Report Top


A 30-year-old lady presented with dull aching abdominal pain in peri-umbilical region and not associated with vomiting or fever. The pain was not related to meals and without diurnal variations. The pain was relieved by "over the counter" analgesics. There was no weight loss or anorexia. On examination, the abdomen was soft with no palpable abdominal masses. Plain abdominal X-ray was normal. There was no eosinophilia. The ultrasonography of the abdomen revealed a 5 cm cystic lesion in lesser sac behind stomach, liver normal, and no other cystic lesion in abdomen. The contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) scan of the abdomen and pelvis revealed cystic lesion of size 6.2 × 5.7 × 4.5 cm in retroperitonium adjacent to tail of pancreas with disrupted membranes within. No significant fat stranding. Liver and rest of abdomen were normal [Figure 1] and [Figure 2]. Preoperative diagnosis of the hydatid cyst was made based on CT scan by identifying the presence of multiloculation, curvilinear calcification, or the presence of daughter cysts/membranes. ELISA test for Echinoccocus granulosus was positive.
Figure 1: Cystic lesion in lesser sac in the tail of pancreas. Membranes seen in the cyst

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Figure 2: Coronal view. Cystic lesion in lesser sac in the tail of pancreas. Membranes seen in the cyst

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Albendazole was started pre-operatively. At laparotomy, lesser sac was opened. A single thick-walled cyst was seen in the tail of pancreas not adhered to adjacent structures (mesentery, spleen, colon, stomach). There was no evidence of any other suspicious cystic lesion neither in liver nor in rest of peritoneal cavity. The cystic lesion was avascular. Splenic artery and vein were easily isolated from the tail of pancreas and only distal pancreatectomy was done. There was no spillage. Drain kept in lesser sac had no output. Albendazole started with oral feeding and continued according to WHO regime. The post-operative period was uneventful. Histopathology revealed on gross, a grey white color cyst of size 6 × 6 × 3 cm with surrounding raw pancreatic parenchyma, while on cutting tender coconut like structures like daughter cysts were seen. Microscopy showed lamellated, acellular eosinophilic material with dense fibrocollagenous tissue on the outer aspect forming the pericyst. It has mononuclear cell infiltrate also. Periphery showed normal pancreatic parenchyma.

With a follow up of 7 months, the patient is totally asymptomatic and has good quality of life. Ultrasonography after 6 months is normal.


  Discussion Top


Pancreatic infestation by Echinococcus granulosus, is mainly by the hematological route, or peripancreatic lymphatic invasion, but very rarely by retroperitoneal spread; even local spread via the pancreatic or bile ducts has been suggested. [4] Symptoms vary according to anatomical location in pancreas ranging from an asymptomatic disease, abdominal mass, obstructive jaundice, acute and recurrent pancreatitis, and portal hypertension. [5] The differential diagnosis of cystic lesions of the pancreas is extensive and includes pseudocysts, cystic neoplasms, such as serous and mucinous cystadenomas, cystadenocarcinomas, cystic islet cell, and papillary cystic and solid tumors, and other rare tumors. [6] Diagnosing a hydatid cyst of pancreas preoperatively is difficult due to its rarity but CT scan is helpful in identifying the presence of multiloculation, curvilinear calcification, or the presence of daughter cysts. Intraoperative biopsy and histological examination of biopsy material may fail to differentiate cystic lesions reliably in 20% of cases. A biopsy of the wall of a cystic neoplasm of the pancreas is unreliable because serous cystadenoma and mucinous cystic neoplasms have incomplete cyst epithelium in 40% and 72% of cases, respectively. Up to 90% of the cyst lining may be epithelium-free. In addition, some tumors have a mixture of cuboidal, benign columnar, and malignant cells within the same lesion. Aspiration of cyst fluid for scolices may be negative. These data provide a cogent argument in favor of complete excision of an unidentified cystic lesion of the pancreas. [6],[7] Depending on the site, various methods of surgical treatment have been used. For cysts located in the body and tail, subtotal cystectomy leaving only adventia behind is preferred. If a cyst is communicating with MPD then distal pancreatectomy is the procedure of choice, or cystoenteric anastomosis can be done. Cysts located in the head of pancreas have been treated by various methods like Whipple's resection, marsupialization, and external drainage. Other methods like partial cystectomy or cystoenteric anastomosis have also been used. [6],[8],[9],[10] There are few reports in the literature in which a cyst in the tail of pancreas was managed by distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy. [11] We were successfully able to spare the spleen in this patient.

We conclude that a hydatid cyst should be considered a differential diagnosis in management of complex cystic lesions of pancreas. Typical features identified in CECT are helpful in making preoperative diagnosis and appropriate treatment.


  Acknowledgement Top


Dr. Sanjay Oak, Director, Seth G S Medical College, Mumbai, India.

 
  References Top

1.Ibis C, Albayrak D, Altan A. Primary hydatid cyst pancreas mimicking cystic neoplasm. South Med J 2009;102:529-30.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
2.Rodriguez VJ, Arroyo CJ, Pitarch EV. Pancreatic hydatid cyst. Cir Pediatr 1992;5:46-7.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Khiari A, Mazli R, Ouali M, Kharrat M, Kechaou MS, Beyrouti MI. Hydatid cyst of the pancreas: Apropos of 7 cases. Ann Gastroenterol Hepatol (Paris) 1994;30:87-91.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Kayabali I, Gokcora IH, Ormeci N. Surgical treatment of hydatid cysts of the pancreas. Int Surg 1991;76:185-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Gonzalez EP, Gil-Grande L, del Arbol LR, del Pozo D, Miquel J, Vazquez M, et al. Presinusoidal portal hypertension secondary to portal invasive echinococcosis. J Clin Gastroenterol 2002;34:103-4.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
6.Krige JE, Mirza K, Bornman PC, Beningfield SJ. Primary hydatid cysts of the pancreas. S Afr J Surg 2005;43:37-40.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]    
7.Box JC, Douglas HO. Management of cystic neoplasms of the pancreas. Am Surg 2000;66:495-501.  Back to cited text no. 7
[PUBMED]    
8.Arikan A, Sayan A, ErikÇi VS. Hydatid cyst of the pancreas: A case report with 5 years' follow-up. Pediatr Surg Int 1999;15:579-81.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Erkan M, Haciyanli M, Yildrium M. Case report of unusual presence of Hydatid disease in pancreas and breast. JOP 2004;5:368-72.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Moosavi SR, Kermany HK. Epigastric mass due to Hydatid cyst of pancreas: A case report and review of literature. JOP 2007;8:232-4.  Back to cited text no. 10
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
11.Singh R, Khullar A. Pancreatic Hydatid cyst. Indian J Gastroenterol 1999;18:35.  Back to cited text no. 11
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]



 

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