Table of Contents  
LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 150-151  

The newest information about challenge of Ebola in current world


1 Infectious Diseases Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran
2 Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran

Date of Web Publication22-Dec-2015

Correspondence Address:
Seyed Hossein Shahcheraghi
Infectious Diseases Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0975-2870.167989

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How to cite this article:
Shahcheraghi SH, Ayatollahi J, Bafghi AF. The newest information about challenge of Ebola in current world . Med J DY Patil Univ 2016;9:150-1

How to cite this URL:
Shahcheraghi SH, Ayatollahi J, Bafghi AF. The newest information about challenge of Ebola in current world . Med J DY Patil Univ [serial online] 2016 [cited 2020 Aug 10];9:150-1. Available from: http://www.mjdrdypu.org/text.asp?2016/9/1/150/167989

Sir,

In late December 2013, a deadly infectious epidemic, Ebola virus disease (EVD), emerged from West Africa and resulted in a formidable outbreak in areas including Guinea, Liberia, Sierra, Leone, and Nigeria. [1] EVD is a zoonotic disease with a high mortality rate. The virus represents one of the 2 genera that are comprised by the family Filoviridae. [1] It is an enveloped, filamentous, no segmented, negative-sense RNA virus with genomes of approximately 19 kb. [2] Person-to-person transmission occurs through blood or body fluid exposure, which can jeopardize first-line healthcare workers if there is a lack of stringent infection control or no proper personal protective equipment available. [3] There is no evidence of true aerosol transmission of the virus. [3]

The first case of the EVD was recognized in 1976 and caused an outbreak in northern Zaire. The subtype was named Zaire Ebola virus (EBOV). [4] At the same time, another unrelated virus, which resulted in epidemics in South Sudan, 850 km away from Zaire, was identified as Sudan Ebola virus (SUDV). [4] SUDV recurred in the same area of Sudan in 1979. After two decades of silence, Ebola hemorrhagic fever re-emerged in 1994-1997 in DRC (formerly Zaire) and Gabon. During the early 21 st century, smoldering outbreaks of EBOV and SUDV were reported in Uganda and Congo. [5] The mortality rates for EBOV and SUDV were on average 80-90% and 50%, respectively. [5]

EVD has an incubation period of 2-21 days (mean, 4-10 days), and the infection is acute without any carrier status. [6] Symptoms usually begin with a flu-like syndrome, including sudden onset of high fever, chills, and myalgia. Multiple systems may be involved, including gastrointestinal (anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea), respiratory (chest pain, dyspnea, cough), vascular (conjunctival injection, postural hypotension, and edema) and neurologic (headache, confusion, and coma) manifestation. [7]

Laboratory diagnosis for EVD should be performed in a well-equipped laboratory with up to biosafety level 4 biocontaminant facilities for viral culturing. Routine laboratory data in the early stage of EVD are similar to that observed in common viral infection: Leucopenia (as low as 1000 cells/L), left shift with atypical lymphocytes, thrombocytopenia (50,000-100,000 cells/L), and elevated liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase typically exceeding alanine aminotransferase). [8] The estrogen receptor modulators clomiphene and toremifene prevent membrane fusion of EBOV and 50-90% of treated mice survived after clomiphene/toremifene treatments. Furthermore, blood transfusions and active treatments with Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs to treat disseminated intravascular coagulation related to EBOV are recommended. [9],[10] Currently, there is no standard treatment for EVD. The main strategies presently employed are symptomatic and supportive care, such as preserving fluid and electrolytes balance, maintaining oxygen saturation and blood pressure, and treating complications such as secondary infections. [8]

 
  References Top

1.
Kieny MP, Evans DB, Schmets G, Kadandale S. Health-system resilience: Reflections on the Ebola crisis in Western Africa. Bull World Health Organ 2014;92:850.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Dynes MM, Miller L, Sam T, Vandi MA, Tomczyk B, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Perceptions of the risk for Ebola and health facility use among health workers and pregnant and lactating women - Kenema District, Sierra Leone, September 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2015;63:1226-7.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
P³usa T. Modern threat of Ebola virus. Pol Merkur Lekarski 2014;37:257-60.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
O'Donovan J, Bersin A. Controlling Ebola through mHealth strategies. Lancet Glob Health 2015;3:e22.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Gbakima A, Frieden T, Voelker R. Ebola perspectives from opposite sides of the globe. JAMA 2014;312:2605-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Epstein JM, Sauer LM, Chelen J, Hatna E, Parker J, Rothman RE, et al. Infectious disease: Mobilizing Ebola survivors to curb the epidemic. Nature 2014;516:323-5.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Martinez VP, Bellomo CM, Iglesias AA. Laboratory preparation for the diagnosis of Ebola virus disease in Argentina. Medicina (B Aires) 2014;74:506-7.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Huang Y, Zhu Y, Yang M, Zhang Z, Song D, Yuan Z. Nucleoprotein-based indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (indirect ELISA) for detecting antibodies specific to Ebola virus and Marbug virus. Virol Sin 2014;29:372-80.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Yuan S. Possible FDA-approved drugs to treat Ebola virus infection. Infect Dis Poverty 2015;4:23.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Deen J, Dondorp AM, White NJ. Treatment of Ebola. N Engl J Med 2015;372:1673-4.  Back to cited text no. 10
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