|Year : 2014 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 516-518
Nodular mesenteric panniculitis of rectum simulating malignancy
Anjali Amarapurkar1, Manish Patil1, Vinaya Shah1, Aniruddha Chaphekar2
1 Department of Pathology, T N Medical College and B Y L Nair Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Surgery, T N Medical College and B Y L Nair Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
|Date of Web Publication||25-Jun-2014|
31/610, Samata Nagar, Kandivali East, Mumbai - 400 101, Maharashtra
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Mesenteric panniculitis is a benign fibroinflammatory process involving adipose tissue of the mesentery. We report a case of a 62 year old male who showed signs of partial bowel obstruction and whose computed tomography of abdomen showed nodular soft tissue densities around the sigmoid junction. Distal colectomy was planned and laparotomy was performed. Anal skin, rectum and sigmoid colon was resected. Microscopic pathologic sections from the serosal nodule showed histo morphologic features of panniculitis while overlying mucosa showed tumor consisting of mucin secreting adenocarcinoma.
Keywords: Mesenteric, panniculitis, nodular
|How to cite this article:|
Amarapurkar A, Patil M, Shah V, Chaphekar A. Nodular mesenteric panniculitis of rectum simulating malignancy. Med J DY Patil Univ 2014;7:516-8
|How to cite this URL:|
Amarapurkar A, Patil M, Shah V, Chaphekar A. Nodular mesenteric panniculitis of rectum simulating malignancy. Med J DY Patil Univ [serial online] 2014 [cited 2021 Oct 19];7:516-8. Available from: https://www.mjdrdypu.org/text.asp?2014/7/4/516/135295
| Introduction|| |
Mesenteric panniculitis (MP) of the rectum is a rare occurrence in surgical practice. MP is a benign fibro-inflammatory process involving adipose tissue of the mesentery characterized by the presence of fat necrosis, chronic inflammation and fibrosis, when localized, it mimics malignancy.We present a rare case of nodular mesenteric panniculitis associated with carcinoma of rectum.
| Case Report|| |
A 62-year-old male was admitted to our hospital with history of generalized weakness, intermittent left lower quadrant abdominal pain, weight loss, constipation, and signs of partial bowel obstruction for last 6 months. There was no history of fever, malena, or mucus in stools. Physical examination revealed a palpable tender mass in the left abdomen. The patient gave history of fistulectomy operation done 4 years ago.
Computed tomography of abdomen done in other institute showed nodular soft tissue densities around the sigmoid junction. Routine laboratory findings were within normal limits. The tumor markers CEA and CA 19.9 were within the normal range. Considering biopsy diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, possibility of tumor invading into attached (overlying) mesentery was considered. Distal colectomy was planned and laparotomy was performed. Anal skin, rectum, and sigmoid colon were resected and sent for histopathological examination.
Grossly, a segment of distal colon was received measuring 10 cm. On serosal aspect, overlying recto-sigmoid junction, a well demarcated single nodular lesion was seen measuring 4 × 4 cm 2 . The cut surface was yellowish white, firm with few congested areas. The overlying mucosa over the nodule was firm and flattened. Rest of the mucosa and bowel wall, adjacent to mass was normal [Figure 1].
|Figure 1: Gross of surgical specimen shows 4 cm nodule in the mesentery with characteristic intensely yellow areas with congestion|
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Microscopic pathologic sections from the serosal nodule demonstrated chronic reactive inflammatory process with proliferation of fibroblasts in the adipose tissue. Areas of steatonecrosis and lipid laden macrophages, few giant cells, [Figure 2] lymphocytes and plasma cells were present. [Figure 3] Based on these characteristic features, diagnosis of mesenteric panniculitis was given. Sections from the firm overlying mucosa showed tumor consisting of mucin secreting adenocarcinoma infiltrating upto superficial layer of muscularispropria [Figure 4].
|Figure 2: Section from nodule shows adipose tissue infiltrated by lymphocytes, plasma cells, and large number of lipophages associated with moderate fibrosis|
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|Figure 3: High power view of the nodule highlights lipophages and few giant cells|
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|Figure 4: Section shows rectal adenocarcinoma (arrow). Serosa shows nodular panniculitis without involvement of muscle layer|
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| Discussion|| |
Mesenteric panniculitis is more common in men, with a male/female ratio of 2-3/1, and the incidence increases with age. ,, MP affects predominantly the mesentery of small intestine. , The process rarely involves large intestine.  According to Wexner and Attiyeh,  there have been 122 cases of MP described in the literature and only three involved the mesentery of colon, and they reported two cases of MP of sigmoid colon. According to literature review of Karentzos and co-workers  in 1990, only 5 of 124 cases of MP involved mesentery of sigmoid colon. Emory and co-workers  reviewed 84 cases coded as mesenteric lipodystrophy, mesenteric panniculitis, retractile mesenteritis, and sclerosingmesenteritis. The authors suggest that numerous terminologies appear to represent histologic variants of one clinical entity. The most consistent histologic findings in that study were the presence of fibrosis and chronic inflammatory infiltrate as was demonstrated in our case.
Nodular mesenteric panniculitis can be mistaken for a mesenteric neoplasm based on clinical, radiological, and gross characteristics.  The standard diagnostic methods are not helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Only gross and microscopic examination of the surgically removed specimen clarified the diagnosis. Microscopically, inflammatory involvement of the adipose tissue shows lymphocytes, plasma cells, foam cells and giant cells and variable amount of fibrosis.Macrophages that have ingested fat, also called lipophages, are the hallmark of the diagnosis.
The aetiology and pathogenesis of the disease are very obscure. Various factors such as blunt abdominal trauma or prior surgery, infection, ischemia, auto immune processes, underlying malignancy have been suggested as possible causes. The possible aetiology in our case may be related to past surgery done for fistulectomy which was responsible for collection of inflammatory cells, foamy macrophages, and development of nodular panniculitis. Although significant number of case reports an association of MP with lymphoma, ,, there are few cases of MP occurring concurrently with colorectal cancer and diverticulosis.  Daskalogiankiet al.,  have reported the co-existence of MP and various neoplastic diseases, especially lymphoma and gastrointestinal and urogenital adenocarcinomas of patients with MP.Association of MP and malignancy is indicated in the literature with 30% of patients with MP having an underlying malignancy. ,,,,, There is no specific treatment for MP. Current data indicate that the condition is non-progressive and presents no significant danger to the patient.  The differential diagnosis of mesenteric panniculitis is given in [Table 1].
| Conclusion|| |
MP of rectum is extremely rare clinical entity. Although MP is frequently concurrent with malignancy, it is a benign condition in which normal architecture of mesentery is replaced by fibrosis, necrosis and chronic inflammatory cells. On gross examination, the alterations may be mistaken for a neoplastic process. A frozen section (histopathology) may be necessary for confirmation of the diagnosis. When the advanced inflammatory changes become irreversible and bowel obstruction occurs, resection may be indicated.A better knowledge of its clinical and radiological features could avoid unnecessary digestive resection.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]