Year : 2015  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 304-307

Retinal changes in pregnancy-induced hypertension

1 Department of Ophthalmology and Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College and Research Centre, Pimpri, Pune, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Ophthalmology, Baroda Medical College, Vadodara, Gujarat, India

Correspondence Address:
Akash Pankaj Shah
Department of Ophthalmology, Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College and Research Centre, Pimpri, Pune - 411 018, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0975-2870.157067

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Aims: The aim was to determine the prevalence of retinal changes in pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and any association between the retinal changes and age, parity, blood pressure, proteinuria, and severity of the disease. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: All the patients admitted with a diagnosis of PIH were included in this study. Age, gravida, gestation period, blood pressure, and proteinuria were noted from the case records. Fundus examination was done with a direct ophthalmoscope. The findings were noted and were analyzed using SPSS program. Results: A total of 150 patients of PIH were examined. The mean age of patients was 25.1 years. The gestation period ranged from 27 weeks to 42 weeks; 76 (50.67%) were the primi gravida. 92 (61.33%) patients had gestational hypertension, 49 (32.67%) patients had preeclampsia, and 9 (6%) had eclampsia. Retinal changes (hypertensive retinopathy) were noted in 18 (12%) patients - Grade 1 in 12 (8%) and Grade 2 in 6 (4%). Hemorrhages or exudates or retinal detachment were not seen in any patient. There was statistically significant positive association of retinal changes and blood pressure (P = 0.037), proteinuria (P = 0.0005), and severity of the PIH (P = 0.004). Conclusions: Retinal changes were seen in 12% of patients with PIH. Occurrence of hypertensive retinopathy in PIH cases has been decreased due to better antenatal care and early detection and treatment of PIH cases. There is a greater chance of developing retinopathy with increase in blood pressure, severity of PIH, and proteinuria in cases of PIH.

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