SHORT REVIEW
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 438-442

Moving ahead of prostate-specific antigen


1 Department of Pathology, Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Pune, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Computer Sciences, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Correspondence Address:
Banyameen Mohamad Iqbal
Department of Pathology, Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Pimpri, Pune - 411 018, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0975-2870.186079

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Prostate gland is the second most leading site of cancer among males in Indian cities and it is the second most common site of cancer among US men. Prostate cancer (PCa) is the sixth leading cause of cancer death among men worldwide. The worldwide PCa burden is expected to grow to 1.7 million new cases and 499,000 new deaths by 2030. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a protein made by the prostate. Biochemically, it belongs to the protease family of kallikrein and is also known as human kallikrein 3. PSA test was originally approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 1986 to monitor the progression of PCa in men who had already been diagnosed with the disease. PSA test is a nonspecific test for PCa. It can be raised in a number of benign conditions of the prostate as well. The most frequent benign prostate conditions that cause an elevation in PSA level is prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Moreover, PSA test may give false-positive or false-negative results. Scientists and researchers are experimenting new ways to improve the PSA test to give us the ability to distinguish cancerous from benign conditions. Some new methods/genetic studies such as PCa gene 3, TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene, micro ribonucleic acid patterns, proteo-imaging, etc., are being developed to detect PCa in its earliest form. These new tests are much more sensitive and specific than the age old PSA test. It is only a matter of time when these new tests will be fully functional and will either augment or fully replace the age old PSA test.


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