Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth

LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Year
: 2015  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 274--275

The most frequent parasites in HIV-infected patients in Asia and Africa


Seyed Hossein Shahcheraghi1, Jamshid Ayatollahi1, Marzieh Lotfi2, Mohammad Sadegh Raeeszadeh3,  
1 Department of Infectious Diseases,Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Yazd, Iran
2 Department of Modern Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
3 School of Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Seyed Hossein Shahcheraghi
Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd
Iran




How to cite this article:
Shahcheraghi SH, Ayatollahi J, Lotfi M, Raeeszadeh MS. The most frequent parasites in HIV-infected patients in Asia and Africa.Med J DY Patil Univ 2015;8:274-275


How to cite this URL:
Shahcheraghi SH, Ayatollahi J, Lotfi M, Raeeszadeh MS. The most frequent parasites in HIV-infected patients in Asia and Africa. Med J DY Patil Univ [serial online] 2015 [cited 2020 Nov 30 ];8:274-275
Available from: https://www.mjdrdypu.org/text.asp?2015/8/2/274/153188


Full Text

Sir,

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is acquired by infection with human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV). The cause of the disease is a virus from the retrovirus class in humans. HIV/AIDS ranks among the most dreaded diseases afflicting mankind, causing dysfunction of the immune system and resulting in overwhelming and fatal opportunistic infections. [1],[2]

Diarrhea is one of the most common presenting complaints in HIV-infected patients. [2] There are varieties of methods to find parasites in stool samples, such as the method that stool samples obtain from each patient and parasites are examined by direct, formol-ether and modified Ziehl - Neelsen stain for Cryptosporidium spp. and I. belli. [2]

The species-specific prevalence among HIV positives in China was as follows: 3.6% for hookworm, 0.7% for Trichuris trichiura, 0% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.3% for Clonorchis sinensis, 1.3% for Giardia intestinalis, 16.2% for Blastocystis hominis, 1.7% for Entamoeba spp. and 8.3% for Cryptosporidium spp. [3]

Cryptosporidium (4.9%), Cyclospora cayetanensis (4.5%) and Giardia duodenalis (1.9%) were the most frequent single infections in Indonesia, but Blastocystis hominis (72.4%) was the most commonly occurring protist. [4]

The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in HIV patients is high in Chennai, India, especially at CD4 <1000/μL, with I. belli infection being the most common. [5]

The results showed that the infection with Cryptosporidium in AIDS patients had the highest prevalence (9.4%) related to parasites identified among HIV-infected individuals in Iran. [6]

There is a high burden of infection with Cryptosporidium spp. among HIV-infected individuals in southern Ethiopia, but that of I. belli is low. [7]

Parasites identified in Kenya were Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (58.3%), Giardia lamblia (16.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.6%), Entamoeba coli (5.9%), Taenia saginata (5.3%), Trichuris trichuria (1.9%), Enterobius vermicularis (1.9%) and hookworm (1.3%). [8]

In Cameroon, the most frequent pathogens were Candida spp. (14.9%), Cryptosporidium spp. (7.5%), Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar (3%). [9]

References

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2Shimelis T, Tadesse E. Performance evaluation of point-of-care test for detection of Cryptosporidium stool antigen in children and HIV infected adults. Parasit Vectors 2014;7:227.
3Tian LG, Chen JX, Wang TP, Cheng GJ, Steinmann P, Wang FF, et al. Co-infection of HIV and intestinal parasites in rural area of China. Parasit Vectors 2012;5:36.
4Kurniawan A, Karyadi T, Dwintasari SW, Sari IP, Yunihastuti E, Djauzi S, et al. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS patients presenting with diarrhoea in Jakarta, Indonesia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2009;103:892-8.
5Janagond AB, Sasikala G, Agatha D, Ravinder T, Thenmozhivalli PR. Enteric Parasitic Infections in Relation to Diarrhoea in HIV Infected Individuals with CD4 T Cell Counts <1000 Cells/μl in Chennai, India. J Clin Diagn Res 2013;7:2160-2.
6Daryani A, Sharif M, Meigouni M, Mahmoudi FB, Rafiei A, Gholami SH, et al. Prevalence of intestinal parasites and profile of CD4+ counts in HIV+/AIDS people in north of Iran, 2007-2008. Pak J Biol Sci 2009;12:1277-81.
7Girma M, Teshome W, Petros B, Endeshaw T. Cryptosporidiosis and Isosporiasis among HIV-positive individuals in south Ethiopia: A cross sectional study. BMC Infect Dis 2014; 14:100.
8Kipyegen CK, Shivairo RS, Odhiambo RO. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV patients in Baringo, Kenya. Pan Afr Med J 2012;13:37.
9Lehman LG, Kangam L, Mbenoun ML, Zemo Nguepi E, Essomba N, Tonga C, et al. Intestinal parasitic and candida infection associated with HIV infection in Cameroon. J Infect Dev Ctries 2013;7:137-43.